Tag Archives: science

G Objects: A Strange New Discovery At The Galactic Centre!

G Objects: A Strange New Discovery At The Galactic Centre!

From what they are, to what they could mean for both black holes and the Milky Way Galaxy, join me as we unravel the mystery of G objects.
So…what exactly are G objects? To answer that, we have to go to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, you know, the galaxy we live in right now? Well, at the center of that is a black hole, or to be more accurate a “radio source” that we BELIEVE to be a Supermassive Black Hole known as Sagittarius A. We technically know it’s a black hole because of readings and such, but as many scientists like to note, if you haven’t seen it or touched it yourself…it’s all theoretical.
Anyway, like you would expect from a black hole, the area around it is dark (as black holes don’t let light escape and thus they make a black mass of space) and anything that would get near it would get sucked in. But over the last few decades, astronomers have noted that there are things actually orbiting the black hole, which really shouldn’t be happening. And yet, they are, and they’re acting like objects that have never been viewed before in space or anything else.
Thus, these objects were labeled, “G Objects”, and of these objects that we have found, there are 6. There could be more, but we haven’t found them yet, so for now it’s just six, and the first two of these six were actually found decades ago.
Here’s what happened, scientists were studying the black hole and over the course of many years realized that two objects seemed to be orbiting the black hole, and yet, they weren’t acting right. The first belief of these objects in regards to what they were gas clouds. Which if we’re being honest would make sense as gas clouds are littered throughout space, including one that has the chemical that is used to make alcohol taste better (no, really, look it up.)
But there were some problems with this theory. First among them was that these two different gas clouds were 100 astronomical units across (one astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the sun), which made it REALLY weird that something that size would be orbiting a black hole without issue. And as they looked closer, they noticed that the clouds were getting stretched out as they were getting closer to the black hole. So in many ways, these gas clouds were acting like something else made of gas…
“These objects look like gas but behave like stars,” said physicist and astronomer Andrea Ghez of the University of California, Los Angeles.
Since the find of G1 and G2 (the names of the two gas clouds), the team led by Ghez has been studying the center of the galaxy for 20 years! And through that, they found G3-G6, confirming that there were many objects orbiting Sagittarius A…for some reason. What’s even weirder if you can believe it is the orbits of these six objects aren’t uniform in the slightest, they are vastly different. No unlike the planets in our solar system having much longer orbits than Earth.
How different are they? Depending on the object they can range from 170 years to 1,600 years! And…yes, there’s more, there’s always more, they STILL don’t know what these six objects are! How’s that for a kicker?
We are getting clues though as to what some of them MIGHT be. For example, in 2014, the object known as G2 entered a period of its orbit where it was closest to the black hole, and when that happened, some observations were made:
“G2 is a dusty red object associated with gas that shows tidal interactions as it nears its closest approach with the Galaxy’s central black hole.”
Not just that though, as they observed it from that point to where it moved to next, scientists noticed that it was changing shape based on where it was near the black hole:
“We had seen it before, but it didn’t look too peculiar until it got close to the black hole and became elongated, and much of its gas was torn apart. It went from being a pretty innocuous object when it was far from the black hole to one that was really stretched out and distorted at its closest approach and lost its outer shell, and now it’s getting more compact again.”
So what does that tell us? What does this mean as a whole? Does it truly help us determine what G2 is, or what any of the other G objects are?
Before we answer that, be sure to like the video and subscribe to the channel! That way you don’t miss any of our weekly videos!
The answer to what the G objects may be might be simpler than you might suspect. Because it doesn’t necessarily have to do with what the G objects are per se, but rather, with where they are located!
Confused? I’ll explain. There are many kinds of stars in the universe, we’ve even talked about some of them here on the channel before, but one of those types of stars is Binary. Binary stars are defined as..
To that end, some scientists believe that the other G Objects are possibly also gas byproducts from fused Binary Stars.

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What It Would Take to Build A Mars Base!

What It Would Take to Build A Mars Base!

From getting there, to setting up a base that is functional, to slowly getting the place up to detect for a larger colony, and more! Join me as we explore what it would take to set up a base on Mars!

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For many decades now, humanity has dreamed about on another world. Whether it was a distant world in another galaxy, or just making colonies on all the worlds and moons that made sense, we’ve gone and envisioned all kinds of futures for our race. And on a base level, doing so is kind of vital. The Earth is growing more and more populated, but our resources are slowly but surely going to wear out. So, we need to start setting up places outside of Earth for us to inhabit.
The two best options at present are the moon and the planet Mars. And believe it or not, both the moon and Mars have plans in place to not just put people back on its surface, but, to potentially set up very large and functional bases for us (that’s humanity) to live on. But doing so is no small feat. While there have been many missions to the moon, they’ve only been for historical and research purposes. And even with it being MUCH closer to the Earth than Mars, setting up a colony there is not going to be easy. Yet, if you were to ask NASA, SpaceX and a whole bunch of other agencies what the main goal is for the 2020’s, you would get “We’re going to get people to Mars to start building a colony.”
A noble goal, but one that is going to be fraught with problems and will not be easy to get off the ground. But just so we can prove this to you, let’s break down everything you would need in order to make just a basic base on Mars.
First and foremost, you don’t just send people to Mars and hope that they are going to make it, that would be catastrophic on all counts. Which, thankfully, the appropriate space agencies aren’t aiming to do. Whether you look at NASA or Space X you’ll see that there is a “setup mission” that will happen before the first batch of colonists even arrive.
The point of this setup mission is simple, it’s going to dump a wide variety of items for the group to use when they arrive. Think of it like airmailing a package to a vacation spot you’re going to be going to. In this case though, that “package” will likely be a small base where the group will live for the first 9 months (more on that later), a large series of supplies, potential vehicles, generators, and more.
You might wonder why they’re going to outfit all of this stuff on a setup mission versus just putting it on the craft that has the group themselves. The reason is time, money, and weight. The more stuff you have to put on a craft, the more risk you’re taking that something is going to go wrong. Not to mention endanger the lives of the crew, as well as slow down the craft.
Even with some of the best minds working on it, a journey to Mars is going to be SLOW. Thus, launching a setup mission to get the equipment there is a good first move because A) it shows we really can get to the red planet with a ship (which we’ve never done before). B) it shows that landing these very large items on the surface without serious damage is NOT impossible. And C) should the worst happen, we’re only losing inanimate objects and not human lives. Because the moment that happens, a lot of delays are going to happen, and the colonization of Mars will be likely delayed infinitely until people are sure that they can get to Mars safely
So all told, the setup mission is the first and most important thing…in a long chain of important things that needs to happen on Mars for a base to be setup.
Before we dive even more into the base on Mars scenario, be sure to like or dislike the video so we can continue to improve so we can make the best videos possible for you the viewer! Also, subscribe to the channel so that you don’t miss ANY of our weekly videos.
Alright, so let’s assume that we are able to do the setup mission, and the first group of settlers/researchers are able to successfully be on the planet, ok? What would be one of their immediate challenges?
One of the obvious ones is a notion of continual power. After all, to run a base, and especially a large colony, you need power. Now, the setup mission will be delivering a wide variety of generators no doubt. But that’s only a partial solution. You need a long-term one.
The notion of Solar Power has been floated around by many, and it could work. But, it’s problematic. Mars is known for having storms that’ll block out the sun for days on end. Plus, due to distance, the solar power we’d get is only 40% of the kind we’d get on Earth. That could still help, but it won’t solve everything. Likewise, wind and geothermal power…is a no go.
So what can we do? Well…there is the nuclear option. No, not a b*mb, but nuclear power.

#InsaneCuriosity #ColonizingMars #MarsEverythingAboutTheRedPlanet

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What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?

What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?

From what they are, to where they might go, and beyond! Join me as we explore the question of, “where do black holes lead to?”

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Before we dive into the potential pathways that Black Holes may have, it’s important to know exactly what they are. Because while you might have a loose definition as to what they are and what they do, they’re actually far more complex than you might realize. Which is why many people in NASA and other space programs are fascinated by them.
If you’re looking for a technical definition, this is how NASA describes Black Holes:
“A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying.”
This singularity as it is often called is a bit of a mystery in space, and for a very good reason. You see, black holes can form in large sizes, small sizes, and sometimes they don’t even need a fully fledged star to form at all! Which is scary in the sense that it means black holes can form in various ways.
Plus, since no light can actually escape them, it means that they can’t technically be seen by anyone. That being said, it’s easy to “see their work”, as the intense gravity of the Black Holes is enough to stretch objects from their “starting point” and slowly pull them to the Black Hole. This is known as spaghettification, because like a stretched piece of spaghetti, the object will get thinner and thinner until nothings exists but particles. And if you think that a Black Hole is limited in what it can absorb, you would be wrong. Very wrong in fact. If it is close enough, it’ll break down a star, a planet, multiple stars and planets at once, etc. It’s a question of range more than anything.
But there’s a catch to that, as you won’t be able to observe the spaghettification yourself. Why? Remember, no light escapes the void that is the Black Hole, so because of that, you’ll see the last known position of the object that light allows you to see. It’ll seem like they’re stuck in place and slowly going away until they’re gone. When in fact, they or it will be slowly pulled apart.
As we noted earlier, one of the main ways for a Black Hole to be born is to have a star collapse upon itself with such pressure that a Black Hole is a result. However, technically speaking, just about anything in the universe can become a Black Hole. How’s that for a scary thought?
It’s true though, and that’s one of the big “scaling” factors that you need to take into account when you’re talking about Black Holes. In fact, there’s actually a scarier thought that you need to consider, and that’s that black holes could technically be all around you right now. The only reason you’re not feeling their affects is that they’re not large enough to exert their own gravity.
The scale of a Black Hole is referred to as the Schwarzschild Radius. And becoming a Black Hole is impendent on you becoming so small and so dense that you can fit into this radius, and then potentially expand upon it. For example, a human being can become a Black Hole if condensed enough. However, the pressure needed to do that would not only be enormous, you could have to be shrunk 1 sextillion times smaller than a grain of sand. That’s REALLY small.

But that raises the question that we posed earlier, mainly, where do black holes lead to? I mean, if they can be of all sizes, and be anywhere from the size of a massive galaxy to the spec of sand on a beach, how can they lead to anywhere? How does that work? Would it work at all?
In the words of one scientist, “Who knows?”
“Falling through an event horizon is literally passing beyond the veil — once someone falls past it, nobody could ever send a message back,” he said. “They’d be ripped to pieces by the enormous gravity, so I doubt anyone falling through would get anywhere.”
Allow me to back up a little bit. Remember the whole “spagheticfication” thing I was talking about earlier? Well, the place that you would be “stretched to” is the horizon line of the black hole. Think of a black hole like a funnel. The big end of the funnel is the black hole that you “see” in space, and the rest of it is the core of the black hole that is hidden beneath its intense gravity. Now, if black holes DID lead somewhere, then like the funnel, you would have an access point through the core that you could go to. You get it?
The problem here is that most scientists believe based on their understanding of black holes that a horizon line is what awaits you at the end. So if you think about the funnel again, think about pinching the back end of it so that nothing could get out of said funnel. That’s what a lot of people think is in the center of a black hole, a literal end point. Which would be a problem for those who think it would lead anywhere…because it wouldn’t. It would end, o

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Callisto: Jupiter's Cratered Moon!

Callisto: Jupiter’s Cratered Moon!

From its discovery, to its importance around Jupiter, and more! Join us as we explore Callisto, Jupiter’s Moon.
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9. Discovery and Naming Of Callisto
Callisto was discovered Jan. 7, 1610, by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei along with Jupiter’s three other largest moons: Ganymede, Europa and Io.
Artemis. Who was also the goddess of the moon for the record. The name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto’s discovery. Marius attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler.
However, the names of the Galilean satellites fell into disfavor for a considerable time, and were not revived in common use until the mid-20th century. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Callisto is referred to by its Roman numeral designation, a system introduced by Galileo, as Jupiter IV or as “the fourth satellite of Jupiter”.
Now though it’s known as Callisto by most texts, including ones you’ll see in school in hear about when moons like these are discovered. The desire to keep things simple while also rooting much naming in mythology has been desired by astronomers in earlier decades.
8. Orbit and Rotation
Callisto is the outermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. It orbits at a distance of approximately 1,170,000 miles (26.3 times the radius of Jupiter itself). This is significantly larger than the orbital radius of the next-closest Galilean satellite, Ganymede. As a result of this relatively distant orbit, Callisto does not participate in the mean-motion resonance—in which the three inner Galilean satellites are locked—and probably never has.
Like most other regular planetary moons, Callisto’s rotation is locked to be synchronous with its orbit. The length of Callisto’s day, simultaneously its orbital period, is about 16.7 Earth days. Its orbit is very slightly eccentric and inclined to the Jovian equator, with the eccentricity and inclination changing quasi-periodically due to solar and planetary gravitational perturbations on a timescale of centuries. These orbital variations cause the axial tilt (the angle between rotational and orbital axes) to vary between 0.4 and 1.6°.
The dynamical isolation of Callisto means that it has never been appreciably tidally heated, which has important consequences for its internal structure and evolution. Its distance from Jupiter also means that the charged-particle flux from Jupiter’s magnetosphere at its surface is relatively low—about 300 times lower than, for example, that at Europa. Hence, unlike the other Galilean moons, charged-particle irradiation has had a relatively minor effect on Callisto’s surface. The radiation level at Callisto’s surface is equivalent to a dose of aCallisto is named after one of Zeus’s many lovers in Greek mythology. Callisto was a nymph (or, according to some sources, the daughter of Lycaon) who was associated with the goddess of the hunt, bout 0.01 rem per day, which is over ten times higher than Earth’s average background radiation.
6. Surface Of The Moon
Callisto’s rocky, icy surface is the oldest and most heavily cratered in our solar system. The surface is about 4 billion years old and it’s been pummeled, likely by comets and asteroids. Because the impact craters are still visible, scientists think the moon has little geologic activity—there are no active volcanoes or tectonic shifting to erode the craters. Callisto looks like it’s sprinkled with bright white dots that scientists think are the peaks of the craters capped with water ice.
The moons of Jupiter have been something of a fascination for many astronomers and scientists. So when the Earth had the ability to look at the moons via satellites and probes they almost literally jumped at the chance. To the extent that Callisto has been visited many times of the last several decades.
The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounters in the early 1970s contributed little new information about Callisto in comparison with what was already known from Earth-based observations ironically enough.
The real breakthrough happened later with the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979. They imaged more than half of the Callistoan surface with a resolution of 1–2 km, and precisely measured its temperature, mass and shape. A second round of exploration lasted from 1994 to 2003, when the Galileo spacecraft had eight close encounters with Callisto, the last flyby during the C30 orbit in 2001 came as close as 138 km to the surface.

#InsaneCuriosity

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The Sun Facts And History!

The Sun Facts And History!

From the kind of star it is, to its impact on our world, and more! Join me as we explore the Sun: Facts and History.
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8. Our Star
Without a doubt, if you were to list the “most important things in the solar system we live in”, the Earth may be No.1, but the sun is No.2. And for all the reasons that you might expect and know.
Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. Electric currents in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is carried out through the solar system by the solar wind—a stream of electrically charged gas blowing outward from the Sun in all directions.
The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurora.
In short, and in long, the sun is vital to just about everything we do on this planet, and we rely on the sun to do MANY things, even though we’re honestly not controlling anything that it does. Which is a bit of an odd thing for humanity as humans like to control EVERYTHING that has to do with us.
The sun is something we see almost every day (obviously unless cloud cover is blocking it or an eclipse is happening) and even when we don’t see it, we feel its presence. It’s more than just a ball of light in the sky, it’s an energy source, a lifeline in many respects, and as noted above, it helps shape our planet in various ways that would detrimental if it WASN’T doing it.
So if someone was to honestly ask you just how important the sun is, you should tell them all the ways we need the sun, our star, to shine on.
7. Distance From Earth and Its Size
With a radius of 432,168.6 miles (695,508 kilometers), our Sun is not an especially large star—many are several times bigger—but it is still far more massive than our home planet: 332,946 Earths match the mass of the Sun. The Sun’s volume would need 1.3 million Earths to fill it.
Which at first might seem like a bad thing. After all, would we WANT to have a giant ball of fire and radiation just lurking out there that can swallow us whole if it felt like it? Honestly, yes, yes we would, and for a very simple reason, its distance from the Earth.
The Sun is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from Earth. Which is a very LONG ways away, and in fact it’s such a distance that they came up with a term for it via “Astronomical Unit”. So when you hear that a planet or star is say 103 AUs away, that means it’s 103 times the distance between the Earth and the sun.
Going back to the distance itself, you might think that this is a “very long way away” from the entity that gives us light and essentially, life. But actually, it’s better that we’re NOT closer to the sun for a whole host of reasons.
Sunlight and its energy dissipates the farther you get away from it. Which is why there is such thing as a “Habitable Zone” in regards to stars where life can exist as well as water and other key things needed for life.
The closer you are to a star, the more impact you’re going to get from its heat and light. The farther you are from a star, the less likely you’re going to get heat and light in the amounts you need. Lest you think we’re exaggerating this, we have the perfect examples for this. It’s called Mercury, Venus and Mars.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and it’s scorching hot as a result. It’s average temperature is 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Plus, because it’s so close to the sun it’s tidally locked, meaning that it has one “side” always facing the sun, and the other side is always away from it.
In regards to Venus, it’s our “twin” but also a case of the suns energy turning it into something else entirely. A buildup of heat and excess carbon dioxide turned it into a “Runaway Greenhouse Planet” which makes it so hot that it can melt lead. And it’s also the hottest planet in the solar system because of the greenhouse effect which was caused by the suns’ radiation.
Heading to Mars, it’s so far away from the Sun that it can’t absorb the sunlight and energy like we do on Earth, so its average temperature is -81 degrees Fahrenheit. Not to mention it doesn’t have a typical atmosphere in any sense so various solar and cosmic rays bombard the planet. And it’s so far away from the sun that even if Earth settled on the planet, using solar panels to get energy for colonies wouldn’t be as viable as you think because the distance is so great.
So as you can see, it’s GOOD that we are 93 million miles away from the sun, it’s the literal perfect spot to be in to get the positive effects of the sun without many of the negatives.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheSun #TheSolarSystem

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Kuiper Belt: Facts And History!

Kuiper Belt: Facts And History!

From what the belt is, to how it’s helped change the classification of the solar system, and more! Join me as I reveal to you the facts and history of the Kuiper Belt!
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9. What Is The Kuiper Belt?
Despite it being a major part of our solar system, there are many who honestly don’t understand the grand scale and scope of the Kuiper Belt. So allow us to give you some perspective on the matter.
The Kuiper Belt is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt, but is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive.
Like the asteroid belt, it consists mainly of small bodies or remnants from when the Solar System formed. While many asteroids are composed primarily of rock and metal, most Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles (termed “ices”), such as methane, ammonia and water.
The Kuiper belt is home to three officially recognized dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea and Makemake. Some of the Solar System’s moons, such as Neptune’s Triton and Saturn’s Phoebe, may have originated in the region.
In many respects, the Kuiper Belt is the “end” of our solar system in terms of things like the physical objects that are there and reachable. The “edge” of the solar system is a slightly different matter as that would either be the Heliosphere (if you go by magnetic fields) or the Oort Cloud, which is where the suns’ gravity reaches the end of its influence.
But either way, the Kuiper Belt is a major part of our solar system in the literal and figurative sense. Which is rather interesting when you think about it because for a very long time we didn’t understand what was truly in that realm of space as a whole.
8. The Discovery Of The Kuiper Belt
To truly understand the Kuiper Belt, we have to dive into something you’re very familiar with, Pluto.
After the discovery of Pluto in 1930, many speculated that it might not be alone. The region now called the Kuiper belt was hypothesized in various forms for decades. It was only in 1992 that the first direct evidence for its existence was found. The number and variety of prior speculations on the nature of the Kuiper belt have led to continued uncertainty as to who deserves credit for first proposing it.
But let’s go back to the beginning and just break it down from there, shall we?
The first astronomer to suggest the existence of a trans-Neptunian population was Frederick C. Leonard. Soon after Pluto’s discovery by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930, Leonard pondered whether it was “not likely that in Pluto there has come to light the first of a series of ultra-Neptunian bodies, the remaining members of which still await discovery but which are destined eventually to be detected”.
That same year, astronomer Armin O. Leuschner suggested that Pluto “may be one of many long-period planetary objects yet to be discovered.”
This is fascinating for all sorts of reasons, not the least of which is that the discovery of Pluto should have been a finite discovery, or one that led to more study of the planet and what it could mean as a whole. Yet many scientists looked upon it and wondered if it was telling us everything we needed to know about the region.
In 1943, in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Kenneth Edgeworth hypothesized that, in the region beyond Neptune, the material within the primordial solar nebula was too widely spaced to condense into planets, and so rather condensed into a myriad of smaller bodies.
From this he concluded that “the outer region of the solar system, beyond the orbits of the planets, is occupied by a very large number of comparatively small bodies” and that, from time to time, one of their number “wanders from its own sphere and appears as an occasional visitor to the inner solar system”, becoming a comet.
That’s not a bad way to describe what the Kuiper Belt really is, and he was right that by modern classifications, the various items in the belt weren’t able to go and become fully-fledged planets. But more on that in a bit.
Before we continue to break down everything that’s going on with the Kuiper Belt, be sure to like or dislike the video, that way we can continue to improve our content for you, the viewer! Also be sure to subscribe so that you don’t miss ANY of our weekly videos!
7. Continued Theories
The more that astronomers wondered about the Kuiper Belt, the more that speculations rose and fell about what it is, what it could be, what it could’ve been, and more.

#InsaneCuriosity #KuiperBelt #TheSolarSystem

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15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

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From the various peaks of mountains, to the valleys that help reveal so much about red planet, join me as we explore brand new images from Mars via the Curiosity Rover.
I want you to imagine that you are on Mars right now. That is after all the goal of many in the world right now. Between NASA, Space X, and various other international agencies, there are a lot of people who are working hard to get us to the red planet known as Mars, and in the process, create history. Because when we do land on Mars, it’ll be the first time a human has stepped foot on another planet.

15. The Curiosity Rover
You might not realize just how much we owe to the Curiosity Rover, so allow me to explain it to you and show you just how much work this singular machine had done. The Curiosity Rover was launched from Earth on November 26th, 2011.

14. Mount Sharp 1:17
In terms of the location of where the Curiosity Rover was posted, that would be the Gale Crater. This was an impact site that at one time was believed to have been a key place for various things like water and sediment. We know that there is water on Mars, and Curiosity has even found various forms of clay via its explorations.
13. 3D Map Of Mars
While not solely a thing from the Curiosity Rover, anytime you can make a top-down 3D map of an area, it can be very helpful in various tasks that you are trying to achieve. And sure enough, with the help of the Curiosity Rover and the satellites above and beyond Mars over the years, NASA was able to make a 3D map of the area the rover is in, and thus, create a way for them to look over the terrain that would help them go and find a path through the crater and up to the peaks of Mount Sharp.

12. Yellowknife Bay
Yellowknife By was one of the areas that the Curiosity Rover had to go through to get to Mount Sharp, and as you can see from these pictures, various styles and compositions of rock are here in this area. By looking at these pictures, a lot of information was able to be determined. Including the fact that at one time, this area was indeed filled with water. Hence the name “Yellowknife Bay”.

11. Parhump Hills
Continuing on its journey to Mount Sharp, the Curiosity Rover found itself looking at the base of the mountain via the Parhump Hills. And with this came a look at places like the Kimberly Foundation. The more pictures that were taken, the more proof was stacked about how the crater was at one time a major place of water.

10. Garden City
Heading now to a rather odd spot on the rovers journey to Mount Sharp was the place known as Garden City. When you take a look at these photos, it’s almost as if the place is full of bones and litter. But in fact, it’s a place that is full of various mineral deposits that winds and weaves throughout the area.

9. Martian Sunset
If you’re hoping to see more aesthetic things that rocks and dirt via the rovers time on Mars, then you’re in luck. Because during its time on the red planet, it had time to get some absolutely beautiful shots of the Martian sunrise and sunset. Do you notice anything interesting in this picture? Exactly. The Martian setting sun has a more bluish tint than anything we have here on Earth.

3. Vera Rubin Ridge
The highest point in its journey thus far, Vera Rubin Ridge is another case of massive erosion and embedding of sediments. Though it’s impossible to tell at present just how each structure was formed, we do know that some were because of wind erosion, but others don’t seem to be that way based on looks alone. Showing that even Mars can have some weird and unknown structures.
2. The View Of Mars
At the top of the ridge, Curiosity took the opportunity to make a beautiful panoramic shot. Showing Mars from the height it was at, and showcasing the depth of field and the distance it had traveled so far. The fun is quite spectacular, and it makes you wonder what it will be like when Curiosity reaches the top of Mount Sharp. It hasn’t reached there yet, but it will soon more than likely.
1. A Hi-Res Panorama
We’ve shown you a lot of pictures over the course of this video, but now, let’s show you a literal brand new one that has come from the Curiosity Rover just days before this video was made. This was a panorama image that was made by the Curiosity Rover taken over the course of a “break” from late November to early December. This Panoramic image is comprised of 1000 photos and is 1.8 BILLION pixels.
The picture itself is of the Glen Torridon, a region on the flanks of Mars’ 3.4-mile-high (5.5 kilometers) Mount Sharp that the rover has been exploring recently.

#InsaneCuriosity #RecentSpaceDiscoveries #MarsEverythingAboutTheRedplanet

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What If Every Satellite Fell to Earth?

What If Every Satellite Fell to Earth?

Thousands of satellites and pieces of debris currently orbit our Earth. They provide us with television, internet, and communications. But what if all these satellites suddenly went offline? And then came crashing down to Earth? What would a crashing satellite do to the Earth? How many satellites would come falling down?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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How to Tell Matter From Antimatter | CP Violation & The Ozma Problem

How to Tell Matter From Antimatter | CP Violation & The Ozma Problem

This video was made with the support of the Heising Simons Foundation.

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This video is about the Ozma problem of distinguishing the chirality (ie left-handedness or right-handedness) of matter using weak interaction processes like beta decay (for example in uranium), or neutral kaon/k-meson decay. This is wrapped up in the phenomenon of CP violation, by which charge and parity are both violated by certain weak interaction processes – this enables antimatter to be unambiguously distinguished from matter, and left handed chirality from right handed.

REFERENCES

The Ozma Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Project

Sean Carroll on CP Symmetry (& why we shouldn’t trot out baryogenesis all the time)

Electroweak CP Violation on Scholarpedia

The Wu Experiment

Martin Gardner, The New Ambidextrous Universe

Lecture notes on CP Violation and the CKM Matrix, Cambridge (Mark Thomson)

Homochirality

L-glucose (vs D-glucose)

Radioactive Nucleus Decay

CP Violation in Semi-Leptonic Decays (SEE PAGE 426 for reference to definition of MATTER)

Kaon Decay Modes

Flipped bowling Jesus scene in Big Lebowski

Isotopes of Uranium

Beta Decay

The Wu Experiment

Kaons

CP Violation in Symmetry Magazine

Physics Stack Exchange on CP Violation

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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics — all in a minute!

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