Tag Archives: astrophysics

A Galaxy Suprisingly Inside Another Galaxy!

A Galaxy Suprisingly Inside Another Galaxy!



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From what it is, to when it was discovered, to just how it was made and whether there are others like it. Join me as explore how a galaxy is surprisingly inside another galaxy!

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Let’s think about space for a minute, ok? You know that there levels to the scope of space, right? For example, we live on planet Earth, which is part of a solar system that circles around a sun, and if you go out further, you’ll have interstellar space that fills up the Milky Way Galaxy that we reside in. Go even further than that and you’ll find a multitude of galaxies that make up the known universe. There’s a lot of levels when it comes to space.
Zooming back into the galaxies level, when you think of galaxies you think of them in the singular context. Meaning that every galaxy is one thing, one large galaxy comprised of many objects, but still, one galaxy. This all changed though when it came to Hoag’s Object. Which was a literal galaxy…inside of a galaxy.
But we’re getting a little ahead of ourselves here. Rewind back to 1950, and astronomer Arthur Hoag discovered something he didn’t expect. A ring shaped galaxy deep in space. Further measurements of this galaxy noted that it was an astounding 127,000 light years across. But what set apart Hoag’s Object from all of the other galaxies in the universe is that it is part of the .1% of galaxies that are shaped like a perfect ring. Most galaxies are spiral-like in nature, including the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. But not Hoag’s Object. Not only is in ring shaped, but its center is filled with “old stars” that make it look like something much more. Which is kind of the point we’re getting to.
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Alright, so let’s dive into it right away. What could have caused not one or two, but THREE galaxies to merge together in such a way that it creates this very unique effect via the Ring-Shaped Galaxy? Well, as with much science, there is a lot of speculation and theory, but no hard proof. But we’ll let you know some of the prevailing theories, ok?
The first theory surmises that what happened here was a cause of right timing and placement. There once was one galaxy. More than likely a regularly shaped one of average galaxy size (and galaxies are huge just so we’re clear). Then, one day a rogue galaxy (meaning one that doesn’t have a tether) or another galaxy that was just in the area decided to move through the space where our first galaxy resided.
Usually, when something like this happens we get a collision and cannibal effect (more on that later) where one galaxy devours the other. But in this case, because of the distance, the second galaxy just hovered there for a while, causing all sorts of chain reactions, and then flew back out into space. When it did this, the gravity from the first galaxy took some of the stars and items from the second galaxy. When it did this the “new stars” took up space in the first galaxy, but because of various galactic forces were forced away from the core. Which is where the ring came to be. And thus the core of the ringed galaxy is its own galaxy, while the ring is also a galaxy, and the third galaxy is the space in between.
You might think that this is something rather complicated, and it is, but weirder and more random things have happened in space, so there is merit to this.
However, given the laws of probability, and further research on this ring galaxy, there is some flaws to this theory. First and foremost, as far as we can tell…this galaxy has never had a collision with anything else, even a slightly one. Furthermore, the rogue or fast-moving galaxy would’ve needed to hit the right spot in order to cause the chain reaction that the theory states made the ring. Not impossible…but very improbably. I mean we’re talking a billion-to-one shot if not more. That’s not the kind of odds scientists like to bank on when trying to explain something.
Theory #2 is one we’ve alluded to before, and that’s the concept of galactic collision.

#InsaneCuriosity #Galaxy #RecentSpaceDiscoveries

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Why Going Faster-Than-Light Leads to Time Paradoxes

Why Going Faster-Than-Light Leads to Time Paradoxes



Is faster-than-light (FTL) travel possible? In most discussions of this, we get hung up on the physics of particular ideas, such as wormholes or warp drives. But today, we take a more zoomed out approach that addresses all FTL propulsion – as well as FTL messaging. Because it turns out that they all allow for time travel. Join us today as we explore why this is so and the profound consequences that ensue.

Written & presented by Prof David Kipping. Special thanks to Prof Matt Buckley for fact checking and his great blog article that inspired this video (

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::References::
► Alcubierre, M., 1994, The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 11 L73:
► Alcubierre & Lobo (2021), Warp drive basics,
► Pfenning, M. & Ford, L., 1997, The unphysical nature of Warp Drive, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 14, 1743:
► Finazzi, S., Liberati, S., Barceló, C., 2009, Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives, Physical Review D., 79, 124017:
► McMonigal, B., Lewis, G., O’Byrne, P., 2012, Alcubierre warp drive: On the matter of matter, Physical Review D., 85, 064024:
► Everett, A., 1996, Warp drive and causality, Physical Review D, 53, 7365:
► For a more rigorous breakdown of the axis flipping in Minkowski spacetime, see Chapter 3 of “Special Relativity” by Valerio Faraoni (

::Music::
Music licensed by SoundStripe.com (SS) [shorturl.at/ptBHI], or via Creative Commons (CC) Attribution License ( or with permission from the artist
► Hill – An Interesting Retirement [
► Joachim Heinrich – Stjärna
► Falls – Life In Binary
► Chris Zabriskie – Cylinder Two
► Chris Zabriskie – Cylinder Five
► Chris Zabriskie – Cylinder Four
► Falls – Ripley
► Caleb Etheridge – Always Dreaming
► Joachim Heinrich – Y
► Indive – Trace Correction

::Film/TV clips used::
► Interstellar (2014) Paramount Pictures
► Contact (1997) Warnes Bros.
► The Imitation Game (2014) The Weinstein Company
► Star Trek: Generations (1994) Paramount Pictures
► Cosmos: Possible Worlds (2020) National Geographic Fox
► Stephen Hawking’s Favorite Places (2016) Curiosity Stream
► Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) 20th Century Fox
► Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993-1999) Paramount Television
► The Day The Earth Stood Still (2008) 20th Century Fox
► Stargate (1994) MGM/UA Distribution Co.
► Star Trek: Beyond (2016) Paramount Pictures
► Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) Paramount Pictures
► The Expanse (2015-2022) Legendary Television Distribution
► Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994) Paramount Television
► Avengers: Endgame (2019) Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures
► Star Trek: Enterprise (2001-2005) Paramount Television
► Back To The Future (1985) Universal Pictures
► Passengers (2016) Sony Pictures Releasing
► The Time Machine (Dreamworks)
► Alien: Covenant (2017) 20th Century Fox
► Star Trek (1966-1969) Paramount Television
► Tenet (2020) Warner Bros. Pictures
► Loki (2021-) Marvel Studios
► Somewhere In Time (1980) Universal Pictures
► The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007) Warner Bros. Pictures
► Star Trek: Into Darkness (2013) Paramount Pictures
► Logan (2017) 20th Century Fox
► Star Trek: First Contact (1996) Paramount Pictures

::Subtitles::
► German by Frischholz Christian

::Chapters::
00:00 Introduction
06:52 Space Time Diagrams
12:51 Causality Violations
17:01 Paradoxes in Time
24:28 Outro and Credits

#FasterThanLight #Alcubierre #CoolWorlds

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What If There's Life on Kepler 69c?

What If There's Life on Kepler 69c?



Thousands of light-years from Earth, there could be another planet hospitable to life. Kepler 69c. And you’re about to travel to this alien world to see that life with your own eyes. What would it be like to make this epic journey so far across the Universe? What kind of planet would you be likely to find upon arrival? And if you did discover life, what would it look like?

Transcript and sources:

00:00 What If There’s Life on Kepler 69c?
00:44 Kepler 69c facts
02:04 Journey to Kepler 69c
03:46 Kepler 69c atmosphere
05:14 Surface temperatures
06:04 Life on the clouds?

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#whatif #kepler #space #cosmos #exoplanet #universe #science #alien

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What If a Rogue Star Collided With the Sun?

What If a Rogue Star Collided With the Sun?



A rogue star is headed straight for our Sun. If these two stars slam into each other, it could spell the end of all life on our planet. How could a rogue star end up in our Solar System? What would this epic collision look like? And how much time do you have left to live? What is Gliese 710? Where in the Oort Cloud is it? Is a rogue star in our Solar System?

Transcript and sources:

00:00 Rogue star heading straight for the Sun
00:42 What is a rogue star?
02:52 Pushing Earth out of the habitable zone
04:25 HIgh energetic neutrinos
05:30 Merging into a bigger star

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#whatif #sun #star #cosmos #earth #solarsystem #nasa

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What Is The Lifetime Of A Photon?

What Is The Lifetime Of A Photon?



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As you may have read somewhere, light only takes 8 minutes to cover the distance between the Sun and the Earth. Yes, that’s an insanely short time, considering that we are talking about 150 million kilometres! But the light that reach us is actually produced at the centre of the Sun, in its core, where nuclear reactions occur. So, have you ever asked yourself how long does light take to reach the surface of the Sun, starting from its centre?
Well, we may attempt to find a rough estimate. Consider that the Sun has a radius of “only” 696,000 kilometres (compared to the 150 million kilometres that separates it from the Earth)… so we would expect light to reach the surface in, let’s say, a few seconds, is it?
…you may be surprised to hear that this estimate is totally wrong! In fact, light takes… (drums)…. Thousands of years to reach the surface of the Sun!
Wait, what? How is that possible?
…curious to know how? Stick with us and we will tell you the answer in this video!
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Before talking about the journey of light from the centre of the Sun to the Earth, we need to do a short digression about light. Stick with us, it won’t be that long.
What is light? Well, light is something fascinating: in fact, it has a “dual” nature. What does it mean? It means sometimes it behaves as a wave, and sometimes it behaves as a particle. Let me tell you more.
In the past centuries, scientists believed that light was a wave. And they were right, but.. that was only half of the story. At the end of the 19th century, and precisely in 1900, in order to explain some weird phenomena that were puzzling scientists, the German physicist Max Planck postulated that light was actually consisting of particles, called “photons”. Planck’s idea found confirmation five years later, in 1905, when Albert Einstein (this guy again!) managed to successfully explain the “photoelectric effect” by using Planck’s idea. The photoelectric effect is a well-known phenomenon that occurs when light is shone at a material (metals, in particular) and electrons are emitted from its surface as a result. By thinking light as a wave, some aspects of this phenomenon could not be explained. For instance, if the frequency of light was under a certain threshold, no electrons were emitted from the material, no matter how strong the intensity of the light beam is. However, by thinking light as a “bunch of particles”, the photons, this effect could then be explained. In fact, each photon in the light beam carries a certain amount of energy, and when the photon hits an electron in the material, it gives all its energy to the electron, which is now able to “escape” the material. The energy of the photon depends on the frequency of the light beam: so if this frequency is lower than a certain threshold, the photon has not enough energy to allow the electron to “escape” the material. The intensity of the light beam only determines the number of photons in the beam: so it doesn’t matter if we increase the intensity, we will only have more photons, but none of them will be able to “free” electrons from the material, because none of them has enough energy to do that. For realizing this, Einstein won the Nobel Prize.
Now that we have realized that light consists of photons, let’s go back to our original topic: why does light take so long to reach the surface of the Sun?
To answer this question, we have to start by looking at what happens in the core of the Sun. As in every other star, the core of the Sun is the “motor” that produces all the energy and the light emitted by our star.
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#InsaneCuriosity #PhotonLifeTime #HowTheUniverseWorks

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What If Jupiter Never Existed?

What If Jupiter Never Existed?



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Space has lots of different things in it. Planets, nebulas, asteroids, the list goes on. So what would happen if we got rid of a single planet? Specifically, our largest planet Jupiter? How important is this gas giant to our solar system?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

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What If a Marshmallow Hit the Earth at the Speed of Light?

What If a Marshmallow Hit the Earth at the Speed of Light?



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A marshmallow meteorite hurtling straight toward Earth?

How would this sweet space object begin its descent toward our planet? Would the rapid speed of 99.9% of the speed of light, which is 299,792 km/s (186, 282 mps), cause the marshmallow to disintegrate in mid-air?

What would happen if a marshmallow traveling at light speed actually made contact with Earth?

Transcript and sources:

00:00 About marshmallows
01:40 Thank you, Grammarly!
02:39 Light speed
03:32 S’mores in space
5:10 Slow motion
06:51 Marshmallow meteorite

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#WhatIf #Smores #Marshmallows #Astronauts #Meteorite #ChelyabinskMeteor

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