Tag Archives: Dialysis in Delhi

Chronic Kidney Failure

Chronic Kidney Failure – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

The chronic kidney failure is progressive loss of the ability of the kidney to properly perform one or more of the functions assigned, explains the Nephrologist in Delhi. These preferably consist of:

Purify waste substances produced in our body.

  • Maintain an adequate balance of the amount of water and electrolytes.
  • Manufacture and activate certain hormones necessary for the normal functioning of our body.

According to the Nephrologist in Delhi, Chronic kidney failure is a progressive process that evolves over many years and is irreversible, although strategies can be used to delay the progressive deterioration of the kidney.

Causes of chronic kidney failure

Many diseases can chronically damage the kidney. The most important ones are:

  • Metabolic diseases. By far the majority of cases of chronic kidney failure in Western societies are due to diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Glomerulonephritis, that is, inflammation of the kidney glomeruli, the place where the blood is filtered. Glomerulonephritis can be of unknown cause or associated with other diseases, usually vasculitis or autoimmune diseases.
  • Genetic (birth) diseases such as polycystic kidney disease.
  • Medications and toxins.
  • Infectious diseases such as recurrent pyelonephritis.
  • Renal lithiasis due to the presence of large stones.
  • Or after causes.

What symptoms does chronic kidney failure produce?

Most people with chronic kidney failure have no symptoms. The appearance of symptoms depends on the severity of the kidney deterioration.

In the early stages, when there are no symptoms, kidney failure is discovered by taking a blood test for any reason and discovering an increase in creatinine.

As kidney deterioration progresses, vague and nonspecific symptoms may appear such as loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, mental dullness, cramps, itchy skin, loss of sexual interest, easy bleeding, irritability, tendency to sleep, lack of concentration, etc, states the Best Nephrologist in Delhi.

When renal failure is advanced, in addition to the previous symptoms, a series of important alterations occur that require adequate treatment:

  • Arterial hypertension. Both high blood pressure can lead to the appearance of chronic kidney failure, and chronic kidney failure can favor the development of high blood pressure and its possible complications.
  • Increased potassium (hyperkalemia). Potassium is eliminated by the kidney. If it doesn’t work well, it can build up in the blood and be life-threatening due to the possibility of serious heart arrhythmias.
  • Increased phosphorus. It is associated with the appearance of calcifications in various areas of the body and facilitates itching.
  • Anemia. The kidney manufactures erythropoietin, a substance necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells. In kidney failure, not enough erythropoietin is produced and, as a consequence, anemia occurs.
  • Bone problems (renal osteodystrophy). The kidney is the organ where vitamin D is activated, a hormone necessary for calcium to be deposited in the bones. If the kidney does not work well, there is not enough active vitamin D and the bones become decalcified.
  • Cardiovascular disease Patients with kidney failure frequently develop cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial disease, etc.). In fact, cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in these patients.
  • Other alterations. In addition to those previously discussed, patients with chronic kidney failure can present various complications of the brain, heart, and joints, etc.

How is the disease diagnosed?

The diagnosis of suspected chronic kidney failure occurs when observing an elevation of creatinine and urea in the blood. These alterations must be confirmed with successive analyzes. Glomerular filtration, that is, the kidney’s ability to filter waste from the body, must then be calculated.

Glomerular filtration is the best marker of the severity of kidney failure. The lower said filtering, the worse the situation of the kidneys, says the Kidney Specialist in Delhi.

The diagnosis of the cause of chronic kidney failure is sometimes very obvious, for example in patients with diabetes, but at other times it requires additional studies such as new blood or urine tests, ultrasound, CT or MRI of the kidneys and sometimes a kidney biopsy.

Chronic Kidney Failure Treatments

According to the Best Kidney Specialist in Delhi, Patients with chronic kidney failure should maintain a special diet (diet in patients with chronic kidney failure). In the initial stages, when the kidney still maintains a certain degree of function, treatment consists of preventing renal deterioration from continuing or making it slower, and treating all the symptoms and complications that appear:

  • Arterial hypertension. Medicines should be used to adequately control blood pressure. In general, combinations of several of them are usually necessary, being appropriate to use, if there are no contraindications, medicines that block the renin angiotensin system. It is convenient to maintain a blood pressure close to 130 mmHg high (systolic) and 80 mmHg low (diastolic).
  • Increased potassium. In patients with high potassium in the blood, a diet low in potassium (potassium content of food) should be recommended and, if it persists high, treat with medicines that prevent its absorption from the intestine, such as resincolestyramine.
  • Increased phosphorus. A diet low in phosphorus should be followed and, if necessary, medicines that reduce its absorption in the intestine can be used.
  • Anemia. Depending on the intensity of the anemia, treatment with iron and erythropoietin injected under the skin is recommended.
  • Bone problems (renal osteodystrophy). Treatment with calcium and active forms of vitamin D.

In advanced situations, when symptomatic treatment does not help to control one or more of these alterations, and in general when glomerular filtration rate drops below 15 ml / min / 1.73 m2, there is an indication for Dialysis in Delhi (hemodialysis or dialysis peritoneal) or to perform a kidney transplant in Delhi.

In addition to these treatments, it is important that patients adequately control the disease that has led to the development of kidney failure, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney infections, etc.

Patients with kidney failure are at high risk of cardiovascular complications. For this reason, it is essential that they do not smoke, that they maintain a diet low in fat and cholesterol and that they receive medicines to lower cholesterol, recommends the Top Nephrologist in Delhi.

Chronic kidney failure patients are at increased risk for infections, so they should get vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcus every year, says the nephrologist in Delhi.

Dialysis

Dialysis – a procedure that saves lives every day

Millions of adults suffer from chronic kidney disease. As the disease initially develops with little or no symptoms, as many as 90% of patients do not know that there is something wrong with their kidneys. Dialysis in Delhi may be necessary when this organ is damaged and cannot function properly, explains the Nephrologist in Delhi. What is? What are the indications for its implementation? What steps should be taken when dialysis is not enough?

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a method that aims to replace the physiological functions of the kidney. This organ removes harmful metabolic products from the body (including metabolites of taken drugs), which ensures metabolic balance, normalizes blood pH, maintains normal blood pressure and helps to get rid of toxins from the body. The treatment uses the properties of a semi-permeable membrane, which allows for effective purification of electrolytes from colloidal solutions. This membrane retains some of the compounds and allows the rest to flow freely. This is possible thanks to a phenomenon called diffusion. Thus, the more blood reaches the membrane, the more effective dialysis will be, explains the Best Nephrologist in Delhi.

What are the indications for dialysis?

In most cases, patients with renal insufficiency and after poisoning, e.g. with ethylene glycol, are eligible for the dialysis in Delhi.

It is worth noting that dialysis therapy completely disorganizes the patient’s life. Regardless of whether the procedures take place in a dialysis centre or at the patient’s home, the patient must take into account the need to spend about 15 hours a week (3-5 hours on average every other day). Dialysis is a heavy burden on the circulatory system, so the patient has the right to feel tired after the procedure and requires rest. If the catheter connection procedure is not performed under sterile conditions, there is a risk of developing an infection, warns the Kidney Specialist in Delhi.

Dialysis is undoubtedly life-saving, but it is burdensome for the patient and ties him to the place of residence and the dialysis centre in Delhi.

Types of dialysis and their course

There are two types of dialysis:

  1. Hemodialysis – performed extracorporeal. It is used in advanced kidney diseases and is carried out using the so-called artificial kidney. Two needles are most often used during the procedure. One of them drains blood to the dialyzer and the other brings purified blood into the body. The purpose of hemodialysis is to remove all harmful substances from the blood that could not be removed with the urine due to impaired kidney function. This type of dialysis is performed at a dialysis station, and approximately 50 liters of blood pass through an artificial kidney during one session.
  2. Peritoneal dialysis – the patient’s peritoneum is used as a semipermeable membrane. The dialysis fluid is introduced into the abdominal cavity of the patient, the composition of which has been selected in such a way as to be able to effectively retain harmful metabolic products. Thus, the blood pH and blood pressure are balanced and the body gets rid of undesirable substances. Before the procedure, it is necessary to implant a catheter into the peritoneal cavity (about 2 months before the planned dialysis). The procedure is usually performed at the patient’s home, which requires a short training course for both the patient and the person who is caring for him.

Dialysis saves lives, but transplantation is definitely the better treatment option

Kidney transplant in Delhi is an effective renal replacement therapy. It should be performed in patients for whom transplantation is not contraindicated.

It is most beneficial for the patient to obtain a kidney from a living donor. After transplantation, such an organ functions on average for about 15 years and successfully performs all physiological functions. The best situation is when the donor is a closely related family member – a sibling or parent. It is not uncommon for the organ to be donated by people who are in an emotional relationship with the needy, e.g. spouses or friends. An organ for transplantation can also be obtained from a dead donor, however, it is associated with a slightly worse treatment effect. Such a kidney functions on average for 9-12 years.

Before donating an organ, the donor must undergo a number of necessary diagnostic and laboratory tests. Not only is his general health assessed, but also a histocompatibility test. This reduces the risk of possible transplant rejection, says the kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.

Contraindications to live kidney transplantation are:

  1. advanced age of the patient,
  2. active neoplastic diseases,
  3. severe damage to internal organs (mainly the heart),
  4. conditions that cannot be treated,
  5. addictions, including smoking or alcohol addiction,
  6. some chronic diseases, e.g. generalized atherosclerosis.

It is worth remembering that kidney transplantation doubles the life of patients compared to dialysis and significantly improves their quality of life. He does not have to give up his current lifestyle and most importantly, he is not dependent on dialysis, states the Nephrologist in Delhi.

Dialysis: What it is, Care and Complications

Dialysis is a substitute treatment of kidney functions, in which substances that are harmful to the body and that the kidneys can no longer do are eliminated. The dialysis process is carried out through two ways hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and generally, the people who need this process is because they are in a phase of renal failure. In this article nephrologist in Delhi explains in depth what is dialysis, its care and complications.

What is dialysis?

Dialysis in Delhi is a treatment that replaces the function of the kidneys, when they are compromised in their process of cleaning the blood. People who need this procedure are because they have kidney failure and although at first glance it seems simple, the dialysis process can be quite stressful and the side effects generate enough discomfort in the patient. While dialysis occurs, the best nephrologist in Delhi will have placed the patient on a transplant list, when a compatible kidney appears, it will be the end of dialysis.

Types of dialysis

The function of the kidneys is to eliminate toxins and excess fluids from the blood, since the accumulation of these can be dangerous for our health. When this process cannot be accomplished, it will be necessary to help the kidneys through dialysis, explains the nephrologist in Noida.

There are two types of dialysis :

  • Peritoneal dialysis : is responsible for removing the remaining fluid, through the peritoneum, a membrane that covers the abdomen. In this case, a catheter is placed in the abdomen and filled with dialysis solution, which contains a type of sugar that will be in charge of eliminating waste, which will pass through the blood vessels through the peritoneum. To insert the catheter, surgery is needed, this will be placed near the navel. This treatment can be carried out at home, if you have the necessary material and prior medical authorization, which will give you greater independence.
  • Hemodialysis : in this case the access is created in a blood vessel in the arm, where the blood passes through a filter that is divided into two parts, on the one hand the waste that the body does not need is extracted and on the other the blood returns to the body, already clean. This procedure is carried out in a medical center, three times a week for 3 or 4 hours.

Care after a dialysis session

After a dialysis session it is normal for the following symptoms to appear:

  • Fatigue.
  • Weakness.
  • Tremors
  • Changes in blood pressure.

The care that should be taken after dialysis and throughout the process will be aimed at preventing infections in the area where the catheter is located. Some of them are:

  • Personal hygiene will be very important, using neutral soaps to avoid the itching of this disease.
  • Keep the catheter hole covered.
  • Consult your nephrologist in Gurgaon if you see any changes in the fistula.
  • If you receive hemodialysis and feel your arm swollen, hold it high for a while.
  • Avoid making efforts with the arm where you have the fistula.
  • Do not sleep on the side where the catheter is.

Complications of dialysis

The complications of dialysis They are not very frequent, however there are many risks of infections:

  • Peritonitis: in view of the fact that peritoneal dialysis is performed inside the body, there is a very high risk of the peritoneum becoming inflamed, this infection usually responds to antibiotic treatment.
  • Fistula infection: the puncture to create access in the blood vessel must be done three to four times a week, so the risk of infection is quite high.
  • Obstruction of blood vessels: continuous puncture can generate thrombi that make the blood vessel unusable for dialysis. Surgery should be performed to remove the blockage.
  • Feeding: as the kidneys are not able to carry out their function, patients with renal insufficiency should take good care of their diet and the amount of fluid they consume.
  • Arteriosclerosis: people with renal insufficiency have an accumulation of phosphates in the blood, which causes damage to the blood vessels and alterations such as arteriosclerosis may occur.

Recommendations

Starting a dialysis process, produces a significant change in lifestyle and routines, so we give you some recommendations to make the treatment more bearable:

  • Practice any physical exercise that is not violent or exhausting, such as swimming, gymnastics, cycling or walking. Always taking care of the access that has placed you for dialysis (peritoneal or vascular.
  • Communicate in your workplace the situation so that they can take the necessary measures regarding your schedule.
  • Do not isolate yourself, social relationships will help you make this process more bearable.
  • Avoid smoking, this can be a risk for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Read food labels and choose the ones that are low in sodium.
  • Control fluid intake.
  • Remove the liquid from the vegetables, skipping them after they are boiled.
  • Avoid soft drinks, as they increase thirst.
  • Changes in the personal, social and work environment are important, so do not hesitate to consult a psychologist if you consider it necessary.
  • Limit the intake of salty foods.

When to contact the doctor

  • If there is bleeding or infection in the vascular or peritoneal access.
  • Fever greater than 38 ° C.
  • If the hand where the catheter is feels cold.
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Itch.

We suggest you to see a kidney specialist in Noida in case of presenting any type of condition or discomfort.