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Kidney Transplant

KIDNEY TRANSPLANT – A LIFE SAVIOUR

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A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor in a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. Transplantation improves the hope and quality of life of patients with renal impairment.

Kidney transplants are performed under general anesthesia, so you are not awake during the procedure. The surgical team monitors your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level during the procedure.

During surgery:

  • Your kidney transplant surgeon in Delhi makes an incision in your lower part on one side of your abdomen and puts your new kidney in. Unless the kidneys themselves are causing complications such as high blood pressure, kidney stones, pain, or infection, they are in place.
  • The blood vessels of the new kidney connect to the blood vessels in the lower abdomen, just above one of the legs.
  • The ureter of the new kidney (the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder) connects to the bladder.

After the procedure

After your kidney transplant in Delhi, you can expect:

  • Spend from a few days to a week in the hospitalNephrologist in Delhi and nurses monitor your condition in the hospital’s transplant recovery area for signs of complications. Your new kidney will produce urine like your own kidneys did when they were healthy. This often starts immediately. In other cases, it may take several days, and you may need temporary dialysis until your new kidneys start working properly. You may feel discomfort or pain around the incision site during healing. Most kidney transplant recipients can return to work and normal activities three to eight weeks after transplantation. You should not lift objects weighing more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) or exercise (except walking) until the wound has healed (usually about six weeks after surgery).
  • Have frequent checkups while you are in recovery. After you are discharged from the hospital, you will need a thorough follow-up by kidney specialist in Delhi for a few weeks to check if the new kidney is working well and to make sure your body is not rejecting it. You may need blood tests several times a week and may need to adjust your medications in the weeks after your transplant. During this period, if you live in another city, you may need to arrange to stay near the transplant center.
  • Take medication for the rest of your life. You will need to take several medications after your kidney transplant. Medications called “immunosuppressants” (anti-rejection drugs) help prevent the immune system from attacking and rejecting the new kidney. Other medications help reduce the risk of other complications, such as infections, after transplantation.

Results

To prevent your body from rejecting your donor kidney, you will need medications to suppress your immune system. Because these anti-rejection medications make your body more vulnerable to infection, your       doctor for kidney in Delhi may also prescribe antibiotics, antiviral medications, and antifungal medications.

It is important to take all your medications as prescribed by your best nephrologist in Delhi. Your body may reject the new kidney if you skip medications even for a short period. Contact your kidney transplant doctor in Delhi right away if you are having side effects that prevent you from taking your medications. After the transplant, it is strongly recommended that you get self-control and go to checkups with a dermatologist to check for any signs of skin cancer and track your other cancer.

Recovery

Diet and nutrition

After your kidney transplant, you may need to adjust your diet to keep your kidney healthy and in good working order. You will have fewer dietary restrictions than you would have if you were getting dialysis therapy before your transplant, but you may still need to make some changes to your diet.

Your transplant team includes a nutrition specialist (dietitian) who can discuss your nutrition and diet needs and answer any questions you have after the transplant.

Some of your medications can increase your appetite and make weight gain easier. But reaching and maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise is just as important for transplant recipients as it is for everyone else to reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes.

You may need to keep track of how many calories you eat or limit foods high in sugar and fat.

Your dietitian will also recommend several healthy food options and ideas to implement in your nutrition plan. Your dietitian’s recommendations after a kidney transplant may include:

  • Eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day
  • Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice due to its effect on a group of immunosuppressive medications (calcineurin inhibitors)
  • Include enough fiber in your daily diet
  • Drinking skim milk or consuming other skim dairy products, which is important for maintaining optimal calcium and phosphorus levels
  • Eating lean meats, poultry, and fish

Your dietitian may also recommend:

  • Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet
  • Follow food safety guidelines
  • Stay hydrated by drinking the right amount of water and other fluids every day

Exercise

Once you recover from transplant surgery, you should regularly incorporate exercise and physical activity into your life to continue improving your overall physical and mental health.

After transplantation, regular exercise helps increase energy levels and strength. It also helps you maintain a healthy weight, reduce stress, and avoid common complications after transplantation, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

The best kidney specialist in Delhi will recommend a physical activity program tailored to your personal needs and goals.

Right after the transplant, you should walk as much as you can. Gradually, start incorporating more physical activity into your daily life, including doing at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise, five days a week.

Walking, biking, swimming, low-impact strength training, and other physical activities you enjoy can be part of a healthy and active lifestyle after a transplant. Be sure to contact your nephrologist in Gurgaon before starting or changing your exercise routine after the transplant.

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Complications Associated with Immunosuppression

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In order for the renal transplant to function and not be rejected by our body for the work of the immune system, we need to reduce or block the action of certain components of the immune response.

We do this by administering drugs aimed at certain metabolic pathways as specific as possible that allow us to reduce the adaptive immune response without affecting the innate measure to a greater extent, but they entail another series of factors, entities or risks that we will detail in this post.

The risk of infections

Infections are the first cause of death after a kidney transplant in Delhi. Logically, by decreasing the body’s defenses the main risk is represented by infections. Both the usual and those called generated by the so-called opportunistic pathogens (those microorganisms that usually would not cause infection in a healthy patient, are able to infect and make an immunosuppressed patient sick). The greatest risk of infection occurs in the first 3 months after transplantation, since at the beginning higher doses of immunosuppressants are administered to avoid acute graft rejection, says nephrologist in Delhi.

The most common infections are respiratory infections and urinary infections, secondly gastrointestinal infections; There is usually a history of an infected relative who may have been the cause of the infection, explains nephrologist in Noida.

With respect to opportunistic pathogens, the most frequent are viruses starting with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and polyomaviruses (BK and JC viruses), hepatitis viruses, herpes, chickenpox, to name a few. Then we find bacteria such as Nocardia, listeria, pneumocystis, among others.

In some cases, we can reduce the risk of infection by getting vaccinated. All transplanted patients should receive a series of vaccines to reduce the risk of infection by these microorganisms; however, it should be noted that vaccines with live or live-attenuated microorganisms should NOT be administered, only those with inactivated, dead microorganisms or bacterial/viral proteins should be administered, says doctor for kidney transplant in Delhi.

Vaccination and prophylaxis

Another way to reduce the risk of infection is through prophylaxis (that is, preventive treatment). Depending on the epidemiological environment of the center where the transplants are performed, more or less prophylactic medications are administered and usually maintained only during the first 3 to 6 months.

However, if in spite of all this, a transplanted patient contracts an infectious disease, it is important that he notify his nearest health professional, and in the case of fever, go to the hospital emergency department as soon as possible, suggests kidney Specialist in Noida.

Immunosuppressive toxicity

Immunosuppressive medications can generate negative effects not only by their direct action, but also by indirect actions or adverse reactions of each family of medications.

On the one hand, we have the anticalcineurinics (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) almost indispensable in most immunosuppression regimens in some patients can general gum growth, hair loss, neurological disorders, insomnia and even direct kidney damage (in very high concentrations).

On the other, mycophenolate (purine nucleotide synthesis blocker) is characterized by generating gastrointestinal disturbances, commonly diarrhea. Another similar medication, azathioprine can cause anemia or leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells below adequate values).

Finally, another group of medications known as mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus and everolimus can cause anemia, hypertension, slow healing or generate joint pain.

As we can see, the effects that these drugs can generate are varied, but their usefulness and benefit outweigh these risks, so it is important that if you notice any alteration or change in normality related to the effects mentioned above, contact your kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.

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