Tag Archives: Disease

What to do if you have suspected coronavirus disease

Elizabeth has been working as a pathologist, freelance writer, and blogger for over five years. She is a firm believer to aware people about disease management and prevention. She is passionate about people awareness about diseases and maintains good health.
Elizabeth has the motive to care and save the population from various diseases. She has a special interest in health management, hospital patient education, and TV programs.

How does coronavirus spread?

The exact dynamics of how the virus is transmitted is yet to be determined but in general respiratory viruses are usually spread from one person to person happened to be standing at a distance of about 6 feet of close contact and thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets production when the previously infected person coughs or sneezes which seems similar to how the other respiratory pathogens spread. The droplets on taking landing on the mouths or noses of people standing nearby can possible be inhaled in the lungs but it remains still unclears that whether a person is effected by this exclusive virus through touching their mouth, nose or their eyes. Typically people are considered to be highly contagious when they are most symptomatic and are sick however there has been reports of spread from an already infected patient to a close to with no symptoms but this easiness in the spread of contagious virus may vary which makes us learn more about its transmissibility, severity and the other associated features.

Protection measures for everyone

Chinese authorities and global experts have been working with WHO formed the day they were informed, and through this assistance, they are learning more about the virus, how it affects the sick people, how it is treated and what the countries can do to respond. WHO has advised the people on how to protect themselves and those around them from getting the disease?

For doing this, the staff is working by virtual means to follow the every possible guidance from the health officials. Certain self-assessment tools are there to help determining whether you should be tested for COVID-19. It is currently and mainly focused on individuals who have travelled outside the premises of the country under effect or the ones who had contact with someone diagnosed as having this virus or more closely has developed its symptoms.

If possible, make a coronavirus assessment

Some of the online self-assessment tools for COVID-19 jumped towards millions of users within the specific days of being launched, such as B.C’s online self-assessment tool, people are starting to bring in use the toll-free line for all the mentioned non-medical information about the Coronavirus outbreak. These new services have taken some of the load off its overburden health lines which have been dealing with more than 4,000 calls per day and is still struggling hard in providing the authentic advice from nurses from all the medical conditions.

The coronavirus self-assessment tool in the form of questionnaire goes from a million of visitors in a single day every week, this web survey helps people know about their symptoms, risk factors and travel history and also provides them certain recommendations for further protection. This will also tell us whether we need further testing or assessment for COVID-19. Moreover, this could be completed by yourself or on other’s behalf, if they are unable to do it.

If you have mild symptoms, stay at home

The majority of COVID-19 illnesses are mild. A clinician can help guide whether you will require further care or potential testing in person. Contact your primary care provider, like any doctor among your family. Let them know that you have used this self-assessment tool. Contact any Oriento and speak with a registered nurse. Let them know that you have used this self-assessment tool.

If your symptoms require treatment

If you start to experience worsening symptoms, please visit your local emergency department. Call before you go and let them know you have used this self-assessment tool. Symptoms including fever, cough or difficulty breathing may develop during these 14 days. If you develop symptoms within 14 days, according to the previous report of Live Science, you should self-isolate and call Region of Public Health. Medical care is needed particularly for those who are elder or have underlying medical conditions, appear to be most at the risk of serious complications for COVID-19.

Take precautions during your visit to a doctor

It is better that before going to a doctor, call him ahead and let your physician know that you have COVID-19. This way, your healthcare provider can take necessary measures for preventing others at the office from being infected. You may also need to make your entrance through a separate door or visit an exclusive designated area according to the previous reports of live science. Avoid going to the people or meeting with those who seam sick to you. Keep a distance between you and the other people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community area. This is exclusively important for the people who are at the higher risk of getting sick.

Wear a facemask if you are sick

You should wear a facemask when you are around other people (e.g., sharing a room or vehicle) and before you enter a healthcare provider’s office.

Cover your coughs and sneezes

If you are not able to wear a facemask (for example, because it causes trouble breathing), then you should do your best to cover your coughs and sneezes, and people who are caring for you should wear a facemask if they enter your room. Try covering your mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze or cough or use the inside of your own elbow.

Throw the already used tissue in a dustbin

Dispose off the tissue: Throw all the already used tissues into the dustbin. Dispose them off properly and do not use them again. Immediately wash your hands with a soap or a sanitizer and water for 20 seconds at the least. If any of the above mentioned things are not readily available, clean your hands with a sanitizer that contains 60 per cent alcohol amount.

Practice good hygiene

Wash thoroughly after use

After using these items, wash them thoroughly with soap and water or put in the dishwasher.

Do not Share

Do not share dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding with other people in your home.

Avoid Touching

Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

Hand Sanitizer

If water and soap are not available on the spot, it is far better to use a sanitizer which contains at least 60 percent of alcohol. Try to bring in cover all surfaces of hands and rub them together until they feel dry.

Wash hands

Wash your hands with soap very often for at least the duration of 20 seconds especially after you are exposed to any public place or after your blowing of nose, coughing or sneezing.

Clean all “high-touch” surfaces everyday

Clean high-touch surfaces in your isolation area (“sick room” and bathroom) every day; let a caregiver clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces in other areas of the home.

  1. Clean and disinfect: Routinely clean high-touch surfaces in your “sick room” and bathroom. Let someone else clean and disinfect surfaces in common areas, but not your bedroom and bathroom.
  2. If a caregiver or other person needs to clean and disinfect a sick person’s bedroom or bathroom, they should do so on an as-needed basis. The caregiver/other person should wear a mask and wait as long as possible after the sick person has used the bathroom.
  3. Clean and disinfect the household items: High-touch surfaces include phones, remote controls, counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets, keyboards, tablets, and bedside tables.
  4. Household cleaners and disinfectants: clean every household item with soap and water with a sanitizer or detergent if it is not clean. It is far better to use a household disinfectant.
  5. The mentioning of safe and secure usage of product. Make sure the instructions written on the detergents for households have the mentioning of safe and secure usage of product like germ killing, wearing gloves on hands or having a good ventilation.

Monitor your symptoms

Seek clinical assessment:

You should seek clinical assessment for COVID-19 over the phone if you feel the following symptoms:

    1. Cough, mild fever and difficulty in breathing
    2. Fatigue, muscle aches, runny rose, sore throat or diarrhea
    3. Among the young children symptoms might appear to be non-specific such as lethargy and poor feeding

If you start to experience worsening symptoms, please visit your local emergency department. Call before you go and let them know you have used this self-assessment tool.

Self-isolation:

You should remain at home in self-isolation until you have been symptom free for 24 hours or it has been 10 days since you developed symptoms, whichever is longer

Follow care instructions from your healthcare provider and local health department: Your local health authorities may give instructions on checking your symptoms and reporting information.

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43 सालों तक अकेले एक कमरे में रखे गए कैदी ने बाहर आकर खोले सारे राज़ Prisoner Mental Case Study

Hello friends, we now know what effect Isolation has on the mental health of the people. We also discuss some real cases of people having faced punishments in history in real life with years of isolation – also known as solitary confinement. What exactly happens with the prisoners then is also discussed.Whether it is the chemistry inside the neurons or any other mystery, we may have an approximate answer for it in the video. Watch the entire interesting video in hindi till end to know more –

VSAUCE isolation video – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqKdEhx-dD4

Also watch these videos as well –

12 साल के COMA से बाहर निकलने के बाद इसने जो कहा सबके होश उड़े रह गए Medical Science Brain Case – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-jZIsBTWUE

5 विज्ञान के Experiment जिन्होंने लगभग दुनिया ही ख़तम कर दी थी | 5 Unbelievable Science Experiments – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTAPX1-jwRw

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Valvular Heart Disease | cdc.gov

What causes valvular heart disease?

There are several causes of valvular heart disease, including congenital conditions (being born with it), infections, degenerative conditions (wearing out with age), and conditions linked to other types of heart disease.

  • Rheumatic disease can happen after an infection from the bacteria that causes strep throat is not treated with antibiotics. The infection can cause scarring of the heart valve. This is the most common cause of valve disease worldwide, but it is much less common in the United States, where most strep infections are treated early with antibiotics. It is, however, more common in the United States among people born before 1943.
  • Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart caused by a severe infection in the blood. The infection can settle on the heart valves and damage the leaflets. Intravenous drug use can also lead to endocarditis and cause heart valve disease.
  • Congenital heart valve disease is malformations of the heart valves, such as missing one of its leaflets. The most commonly affected valve with a congenital defect is a bicuspid aortic valve, which has only two leaflets rather than three.
  • Other types of heart disease:
    • Heart failure. Heart failure happens when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to support other organs in your body.
    • Atherosclerosis of the aorta where it attaches to the heart. Atherosclerosis refers to a buildup of plaque on the inside of the blood vessel. Plaque is made up of fat, calcium, and cholesterol.
    • Thoracic aortic aneurysm, a bulge or ballooning where the aorta attaches to the heart.
    • High blood pressure.
    • A heart attack (also known as myocardial infarction or MI), which can damage the muscles that control the opening and closing of the valve.
  • Other:
    • Autoimmune disease, such as lupus.
    • Marfan syndrome, a disease of connective tissue that can affect heart valves.
    • Exposure to high-dose radiation, which may lead to calcium deposits on the valve.
    • The aging process, which can cause calcium deposits to develop on the heart valves, making them stiff or thickened and less efficient with age.

What are the symptoms of valvular heart disease?

Heart valve disease can develop quickly or over a long period. When valve disease develops more slowly, there may be no symptoms until the condition is quite advanced. When it develops more suddenly, people may experience the following symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Fever
  • Rapid weight gain
  • Irregular heartbeat

How is valvular heart disease diagnosed?

The doctor may hear a heart murmur (an unusual sound) when listening to your heartbeat. Depending on the location of the murmur, how it sounds, and its rhythm, the doctor may be able to determine which valve is affected and what type of problem it is (regurgitation or stenosis).

A doctor may also use an echocardiography, a test that uses sound waves to create a movie of the valves to see if they are working correctly.

How is valvular heart disease treated?

If the condition isn’t too severe, it might be managed with medicines to treat the symptoms. If the valve is more seriously diseased and causing more severe symptoms, surgery may be recommended. The type of surgery will depend on the valve involved and the cause of the disease. For some conditions, the valve will need to be replaced by either opening the heart during surgery or replacing the valve without having to open the heart during surgery.

References

  1. Otto CM, Bonow RO. Valvular Heart Disease: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2017 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released December, 2018. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2017, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html on Oct 24, 2019.

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Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

COVID-19 is a new disease and we are still learning how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States.

How COVID-19  Spreads

Person-to-person spread

The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

  • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
  • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Can someone spread the virus without being sick?

  • People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
  • Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

Spread from contact with contaminated surfaces or objects

It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

How easily the virus spreads

How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained, spreading continually without stopping.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas.

Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.

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Kawasaki Disease: Signs, Symptoms & Diagnosis

What are the symptoms?

Kawasaki disease (KD) is diagnosed when a patient runs a fever of 101°F – 104°F and above for at least five days. (If the fever isn’t treated, it can last up to 11 days.) The fever is accompanied by at least four of the following five symptoms:

  • A rash over the torso, especially in the groin area.
  • Redness and swelling of the palms and soles of the feet when the illness starts. Light peeling of the skin on the fingertips and toes occurs in the second and third weeks. Larger pieces of skin can peel off the hands and feet as well.
  • Bloodshot eyes that can be sensitive to light.
  • Swollen lymph glands in the neck (one large lymph node that measures more than 1.5 centimeters ). Sometimes the neck feels stiff.
  • Irritation and inflammation of the mouth, lips, and throat. “Strawberry” tongue – the tongue is bumpy and red with enlarged taste buds.

Patients may experience abdominal pain. About one-third develop temporary arthritis with pain and swelling of the knee, hip and ankle joints. Incomplete Kawasaki disease should be considered if a child has a fever and inflammation without all the symptoms above.

Photo courtesy of Kawasaki Disease Foundation

What causes it and how can it be prevented?

We aren’t sure what causes KD, but it doesn’t seem to be contagious. It’s also not hereditary in a typical way, although more than one child in a family can develop it, which may indicate a genetic predisposition.

There’s no known way to prevent KD. Parents should know that there’s nothing they could’ve done to prevent the disease.

How is KD diagnosed? 

A pediatrician must examine the child, observe signs and symptoms and rule out similar diseases. Just one test or even a group of tests by a health care provider won’t diagnose KD.

An echocardiogram will provide a baseline picture of the heart, even though a normal echocardiogram doesn’t always mean the child is free of KD. The child specialist may request blood tests or diagnostic studies.

Last Reviewed: Nov 19, 2019

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What Do We Know About Diet and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease?

Can eating a specific food or following a particular diet help prevent or delay dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease? Many studies suggest that what we eat affects the aging brain’s ability to think and remember. These findings have led to research on general eating patterns and whether they might make a difference.

older woman and man cookingThe Mediterranean diet, the related MIND diet, and other healthy eating patterns have been associated with cognitive benefits in studies—though the evidence is not as strong as it is for other interventions like physical activity, blood pressure, and cognitive training. Now researchers are more rigorously testing these diets to see if they can prevent or delay Alzheimer’s disease or age-related cognitive decline.

Diet and Dementia Risk

Changes in the brain can occur years before the first symptoms of Alzheimer’s appear. These early brain changes suggest a possible window of opportunity to prevent or delay dementia symptoms. Scientists are looking at many possible ways to do this, including drugs, lifestyle changes, and combinations of these interventions. Unlike other risk factors for Alzheimer’s that we can’t change, such as age and genetics, people can control lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training.

How could what we eat affect our brains? It’s possible that eating a certain diet affects biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, that underlie Alzheimer’s. Or perhaps diet works indirectly by affecting other Alzheimer’s risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity, and heart disease. A new avenue of research focuses on the relationship between gut microbes—tiny organisms in the digestive system—and aging-related processes that lead to Alzheimer’s.

The Mediterranean and MIND Diets and Alzheimer’s

One diet that shows some promising evidence is the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, fish and other seafood, unsaturated fats such as olive oils, and low amounts of red meat, eggs, and sweets. A variation called MIND (Mediterranean–DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) incorporates the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, which has been shown to lower high blood pressure, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.

Some, but not all, observational studies—those in which individuals are observed or certain outcomes are measured, without treatment—have shown that the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk for dementia. These studies compared cognitively normal people who ate a Mediterranean diet with those who ate a Western-style diet, which contains more red meat, saturated fats, and sugar.

Evidence supporting the MIND diet comes from observational studies of more than 900 dementia-free older adults, which showed that closely following the MIND diet was associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease and a slower rate of cognitive decline.

salad on blue plate with forkNot all studies have shown a link between eating well and a boost in cognition. Overall, the evidence suggests, but does not prove, that following a Mediterranean or similar diet might help reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s dementia or slow cognitive decline. To find out more, scientists supported by NIA and other organizations are conducting clinical trials—considered the gold standard of medical proof—to shed more light on any cause and effect. (See a list of trials that are recruiting participants at the end of this article.)

Scientists aren’t sure why the Mediterranean diet might help the brain. This primarily plant-based diet has been shown to improve cardiovascular health, which may, in turn, reduce dementia risk. In contrast, the typical Western diet increases cardiovascular disease risk, possibly contributing to faster brain aging.

In addition, this diet might increase specific nutrients that may protect the brain through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It may also inhibit beta-amyloid deposits, which are found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s or improve cellular metabolism in ways that protect against the disease.

What Do We Know About Individual Foods?

Many foods—blueberries, leafy greens, and curcumin (found in the spice turmeric), to name a few—have been studied for their potential cognitive benefit. These foods were thought to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or other properties that might help protect the brain. So far, there is no evidence that eating or avoiding a specific food can prevent Alzheimer’s disease or age-related cognitive decline.

But scientists continue to look for clues. One study, based on older adults’ reports of their eating habits, found that eating a daily serving of leafy green vegetables such as spinach and kale was associated with slower age-related cognitive decline, perhaps due to the neuroprotective effects of certain nutrients. Another recent study, in mice, found that consuming a lot of salt increased levels of the protein tau, found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s, and caused cognitive impairment.

What About Vitamins and Supplements?

Observational studies and clinical trials have looked at many over-the-counter vitamins and dietary supplements, including vitamins B and E and gingko biloba, to prevent Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline. The idea is that these dietary add-ons might attack oxidative damage or inflammation, protect nerve cells, or influence other biological processes involved in Alzheimer’s.

Despite early findings of possible benefits for brain health, no vitamin or supplement has been proven to work in people. Overall, evidence is weak as many studies were too small or too short to be conclusive.

Take DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) for example. Studies in mice showed that this omega-3 fatty acid, found in salmon and certain other fish, reduced beta-amyloid plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s. However, clinical trials in humans have had mixed results. In a study of 485 older adults with age-related cognitive decline, those who took DHA daily for 24 weeks showed improved learning and memory, compared to those who took a placebo. Another study of 4,000 older adults—conducted primarily to study eye disease—concluded that taking omega-3 supplements, alone or with other supplements, did not slow cognitive decline.

At this time, no vitamin or supplement is recommended for preventing Alzheimer’s or cognitive decline. Although widely available from drugstores and on the Internet, many of these have not been tested for their effects on thinking. Their safety and effectiveness are largely unknown, and they may interact with other medications. (Note: A deficiency in vitamin B12 or folate may cause memory problems, which are reversible with proper treatment.)

For more information, visit the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Research Continues to Seek Answers

The idea of Alzheimer’s as a metabolic disease that affects the brain, and Alzheimer’s markers such as glucose metabolism, have led scientists in various directions. Besides the Mediterranean diet and its variations, they are looking at other diets as well as individual foods and nutrients.

For example, the ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that prompts the production of ketones, chemicals that help brain cells work. Studies show that this diet may affect gut bacteria in distinctive ways in people with and without cognitive impairment, and may help brain cells better use energy, improving their overall function.

Researchers are seeking answers to these questions:

  • Which foods are critical to brain health and should be included in diet-based interventions?
  • Which groups of people are most likely to benefit from dietary interventions targeting prevention of dementia and cognitive decline?
  • Do dietary interventions have a greater effect if begun in midlife?

These clinical trials are recruiting participants to test dietary interventions:

  • Enhanced Mediterranean Diet for Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention—Cognitively normal adults age 65 and older in Kansas City, KS, are randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean diet or a low-fat diet to gauge the impact on cognitive function, brain volume, and other measures.
  • Mediterranean Diet, Weight Loss and Cognition in Obese Older Adults—This Chicago study will test the effects of a Mediterranean diet, with and without caloric restriction, to promote weight loss and improve cognitive function in obese older adults.
  • Multicultural Healthy Diet to Reduce Cognitive Decline—This 18-month trial will investigate whether an anti-inflammatory diet tailored to a multicultural population in Bronx, NY, can improve cognitive functioning.
  • Brain Energy for Amyloid Transformation in Alzheimer’s Disease—Older adults with MCI in Winston-Salem, NC, are randomly assigned to follow either a modified Mediterranean ketogenic (low-carbohydrate/high-fat) diet or an American Heart Association high-carb/low-fat diet for 16 weeks, with follow-up to assess effects on cognition and Alzheimer’s biomarkers.

To learn more or to find a trial near you, visit NIA’s Clinical Trials Finder.

For More Information About Alzheimer’s Prevention

NIA Alzheimer’s and related Dementias Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center
1-800-438-4380 (toll-free)
adear@nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers
The National Institute on Aging’s ADEAR Center offers information and free print publications about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias for families, caregivers, and health professionals. ADEAR Center staff answer telephone, email, and written requests and make referrals to local and national resources.

This content is provided by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health. NIA scientists and other experts review this content to ensure that it is accurate, authoritative, and up to date.

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CLN5 disease – Genetics Home Reference

CLN5 disease is caused by mutations in the CLN5 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein whose function is not well understood. After the CLN5 protein is produced, it is transported to cell compartments called lysosomes, which digest and recycle different types of molecules. Research suggests that the CLN5 protein may play a role in the process by which lysosomes break down or recycle damaged or unneeded proteins within the cell.

Most of the CLN5 gene mutations alter the structure of the protein so that it cannot get to the lysosomes where it is needed. A lack of functional protein within lysosomes probably impairs the breakdown of certain proteins, which then likely accumulate in cells throughout the body. While these accumulations can damage any cells, nerve cells appear to be particularly vulnerable. Widespread loss of nerve cells in CLN5 disease leads to severe signs and symptoms and early death.

In the cases in which CLN5 disease develops in adolescence or adulthood, it is thought that the CLN5 gene mutations lead to a CLN5 protein with reduced function that is broken down earlier than normal. Because the altered CLN5 protein can function for a small amount of time, some damaged or unneeded proteins may be broken down in lysosomes. Since it takes longer for these substances to accumulate and cause nerve cell death, the signs and symptoms of CLN5 disease in these individuals occur later in life.

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