All dermatologists agree, aging is photoaging, that is, it is the action of the sun on the skin. That’s why most will place sunscreen as the essential cosmetic, not only to preserve young skin, but to prevent skin cancer, says the dermatologist in Rajouri Garden.
Photoaging accounts for about 80% of skin aging, and although there is no discussion and it is the main one, we can abound in the other 20% and its reasons. Beyond creams, we will focus on what we do every day, on our lifestyle.
Aging is caused by internal and external factors, also called extrinsics. Sun exposure is primarily responsible for skin aging. But beyond the sun, what other external factors cause aging?
There are numerous environmental factors such as diet, tobacco, pollution, menopause, chronic diseases, which accelerate the decline of our skin and may require more concrete management, explains the dermatologist in Shastri Nagar.
Remember, the main exposure of skin aging is ultraviolet radiation from the sun, responsible for the appearance of spots, wrinkles, and skin cancer. But what are the others?
10 factors that influence skin aging
1. Infrared radiation.
Infrared is a radiation present in the electromagnetic spectrum that reaches the skin through sunlight and occasionally from the appliances.
According to the skin specialist in Rajouri Garden, infrared reaches the deepest layers of the skin, the dermis, in a high percentage, where up to 65 percent of the radiation is distributed. And even up to 10 percent reach the fat below. Infrared radiation releases heat and induces inflammation of the skin (metaloproteinase) and free radicals similar to ultraviolet radiation.
Environmental pollution ages the skin. It does this through two mechanisms. One of them is when combined outdoors with solar radiation. Thus, combined with UVA increases aging and the risk of skin cancer and combined with ozone decreases vitamin E levels in the corneal stratum, in the shallowest.
Remember that vitamin E is one of the natural antioxidants of our skin, and it defends us from ageing and skin cancer, states the skin specialist in Shastri Nagar.
Without being outside the pollution also affects our skin, it does so again through the release of free radicals and metalloproteinase, such as infrared or ultraviolet.
The harmful effects of tobacco have been known for decades. Studies say that if you smoke your skin it looks 5 years older. The skin wrinkles, affects the vasculature and stains.
More specifically, it affects keratinocytes, fibroblasts and the microvasculature of the skin, also resulting in a delay in wound healing. The mechanism is also very similar to that of ultraviolet radiation.
If you get little sleep, your skin loses water and defends itself worse from the aggressions of ultraviolet radiation. During sleep our skin repairs itself. Chronicly poor sleep is associated with increased signs of aging, decreased skin barrier and worse appearance, says the dermatologist in Vishnu Garden.
Antioxidants defend us from oxidative stress and have anti-aging action. They are vitamins and micronutrients such as zinc, selenium or cobalt present in vegetables and fruits mainly.
A study of 4000 female patients found that the diet rich in antioxidants, vegetables and olive oil was associated with fewer wrinkles.
On the other hand, in a study, it was found that the diet rich in meats and snacks was associated with the presence of facial wrinkles. Diets high in sugars and low protein have also been related to aging.
6. Body mass index.
For all of the above, it seems reasonable, that obesity is associated with further aging of the skin if good dietary habits are associated to the contrary. Obesity produces insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels. These levels have been shown to correlate with subjective perception of age.
On the other hand, highly restrictive diets, inadequate protein intake and a body mass index of less than 18.5 is associated with skin aging.
Moderate exercise increases oxygen in the skin and reduces glucose rates. Women who exercise moderately seem younger. However, strenuous exercise, such as that of athletes, increases oxidative stress related to aging.
A moderate program of three weekly one-hour sessions combining aerobic exercise and strength training has been shown to be effective in reducing oxidative stress in women over 40 years.
8. Chronic emotional stress.
Stressful emotional situations cause changes of the skin barrier in animal models. In people, cortisol levels and oxidative markers related to skin aging increase and in addition, we perceive people stressed by financial problems (common stressor) as older, says the skin specialist in Vishnu Garden.
Decreased estrogen in menopause results in drier skin, changes in texture, hair density, hot flashes, delayed healing and dermis atrophy which results in the appearance of more wrinkles.
These symptoms revert to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) with estrogen, however, most experts do not recommend its use beyond 5 years. The use of estrogen in the form of creams is safe.
Alternatively, there are isoflavones of phytoestrogens, present in plants. It has been postulated to produce estrogen-like effects with fewer side effects.
10 Chronic diseases.
The interaction between the body and the skin makes it reflect our inner state. The chronic disease most related to wrinkles and aging is diabetes, because of its relationship with blood glucose products.
However, there are many chronic inflammatory processes, countless, that affect the skin and our appearance. They include kidney, lung, rheumatological, liver disease, etc.
Skin Ageing: Conclusions
Aging is a multifactorial process, derived from the passage of time and the external factors we receive or exhibit.
The main responsible for the aging of the skin is ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and to a lesser extent other factors on which, as in sun exposure, we can intervene, says the skin specialist in Delhi.