What Are Kidney Stones?
When we speak of the presence of kidney stones, we are referring to the disease known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, which is characterized by the presence of stones in the kidneys, however, in most cases, the stones in the kidney are related to the presence of stones in the ureters.
Most of the kidney stones contain calcium. The pain that is caused by the presence of kidney stones is colic (renal colic) and is caused by dilation, stretching and spasm, due to acute ureteral obstruction, which explains urologist in Rohini.
What are the signs and symptoms of a kidney stone patient?
The classic presentation for a patient with kidney stones is the sudden and intense appearance of acute renal colic, which originates in the flank (abdominal region) and moves down and forward, it is known that in 50% Nausea and vomiting are present in the cases of patients with kidney stones, says the best urologist in Rohini.
Patients with urinary stones may report pain, urinary infection or hematuria (presence of blood in the urine). Patients with small, non-obstructive stones may experience moderate and easily controlled symptoms and may even have no symptoms at all, says urologist in Pitampura.
The location and characteristics of pain that occurs in patients with kidney stones are given as follows:
- Stones that obstruct the ureteropelvic junction: Mild to severe deep flank pain, without the presence of irradiation towards the groin, irritating symptoms of urination (increased urinary frequency, dysuria, among others); suprapubic pain, urinary urgency, intestinal symptoms.
- Stones inside the ureter. Abrupt, severe colic pain on the flank and lower ipsilateral abdomen (on the side where the stone is); irradiation to the testicles or vulvar area; severe nausea that may (or may not) progress to vomiting.
- Upper ureteral stones: Colic pain radiates to the lumbar (lower back) or flank areas.
- Mesoreteral Calculi: Colic pain radiates anteriorly and caudal.
- Distal ureteral stones: Colic pain radiates to the groin or testicle (men) or labia majora (women).
- Stones passed to the bladder: Most of the time they do not cause any symptoms; however, on very rare occasions they can lead to positional urinary retention.
Nausea and vomiting occur in at least 50% of patients with acute renal colic. Nausea is caused by the common innervation pathway of the renal pelvis, stomach, and intestines through the celiac axis and the afferents of the vagus nerve. This is often compounded by the effects of narcotic pain relievers, which often induce nausea and vomiting through a direct effect on gastrointestinal motility and an indirect effect on the chemoreceptor activation zone in the medulla oblongata. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can often cause gastric irritation and gastrointestinal upset, explains the best urologist in Pitampura.
The presence of kidney or ureter stones is not a guarantee that the patient does not have some other unrelated underlying medical problem causing gastrointestinal symptoms.
How are kidney stones diagnosed?
The diagnosis of nephrolithiasis is usually made based solely on the clinical symptoms that the patient presents; however, studies can be performed to corroborate the diagnosis, says urologist in Delhi.
The laboratory tests that are recommended by the best urologist in Delhi are the following:
- Urine sediment test/test strip: It is performed to demonstrate the presence of blood cells, with a bacteriuria test (presence of nitrites) and urine culture in case of a positive reaction.
- Serum creatinine level: It is done to measure kidney function.
- Complete blood count.
- Evaluation of serum electrolytes, especially in patients who present with vomiting.
- PH level in serum and urine: It is performed to provide information about the patient’s kidney function and the type of stone (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, among others).
- Microscopic urinalysis.
- 24-hour urine profile.
Imaging studies that are helpful in kidney stone patients include the following:
- Abdominopelvic computed tomography without contrast, because it is the modality of choice for the evaluation of urinary tract disease, especially in acute renal colic.
- Renal ultrasound to determine the presence of kidney stones and the presence of hydronephrosis or ureteral dilation.
- Abdominal radiograph to assess a total load of stones, as well as the size, composition, and location of urinary stones.
What is the treatment for kidney stones?
The kidney stone treatment in Rohini used in patients is of several types, in the first instance, it is necessary to treat the patient’s symptoms and eliminate them, so various medications are used, such as pain relievers, antiemetics, among others. In cases where the patient deserves surgery for kidney stone treatment in Pitampura, the options available will be explained to the patient. There are multiple surgeries to remove kidney stones, however, the application of each one depends on the characteristics of the stones and the patient.
If you or any of your family members present or have presented symptoms related to kidney stones, do not hesitate to consult a urologist in Delhi to have a certain diagnosis and initiate appropriate kidney stone treatment in Pitampura.