What is kidney failure?
Renal failure is the deterioration of renal function. The disease can be chronic or acute. It is a chronic disease if the loss of kidney function sets in slowly and develops for more than three months, and can be acute if its installation is less than that period, explains kidney specialist in Delhi.
Serum creatinine is a simple marker of kidney function. Elevated creatinine levels, above 1.2 mg/dl in adults or 0.8 mg/dl in children over 5 years old, indicate renal failure. As with creatinine, there are other substances (for example, urea, potassium, and phosphorus) that due to deficiency of “renal” (glomerular) filtration increase in the blood.
Renal patients often question whether they have only one kidney with a deficiency (unilateral) or whether they are both (bilateral). Situations of acute or chronic renal failure imply a deficiency of both kidneys. If one of the kidneys is functioning normally it compensates for the deficiency of the other, even increasing its size (vicarious kidney). A good example of this is the kidney transplant in Delhi in which only one kidney is inserted in each recipient, achieving “normal” kidney function in situations where the procedure takes place within normal limits.
The most advanced stage of kidney failure, when the “kidney stops working” (terminal or final kidney failure), involves replacing kidney function with dialysis in Delhi (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) or, eventually, with kidney transplantation.
Kidney failure is a common disease, responsible for considerable and increasing spending on health budgets. It presents a wide range of clinical and analytical changes that require the implementation of strategies for its prevention, early detection, and treatment. In this sense, nephrologist in Delhi has been proactive.
Complications of renal failure
The complications of renal failure are varied, ranging from water and electrolyte changes as the elevation of serum potassium, metabolic acidosis, hyper-hydration (edema, hypertension, pulmonary congestion) hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, explains the best kidney specialist in Delhi.
Other signs and symptoms of renal failure have been previously described, such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and asthenia. These changes often result in malnutrition in the renal insufficient patient.
Metabolic bone disease associated with chronic renal failure is common and is manifested by changes in phosphorus and calcium metabolism but also by structural changes in bones and arteries, with emphasis on osteoarthritis and coronary artery calcification, respectively.
Can kidney failure be cured?
Chronic renal failure does not “cure”. It is very important and decisive to delay its progress and correct handling, an early referral to nephrology consultations.
Already acute renal failure can have “healing”. In cases of acute renal failure of toxic origin (drugs or intoxications), it is essential to stop its administration. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, are a frequent cause of acute renal failure, says nephrologist in Noida.
Treatment of renal failure
The treatment of renal failure is different depending on whether the failure is acute or chronic and its stage of evolution.
After the detection of chronic renal failure, measures must be taken to delay its progression:
- Control of arterial hypertension;
- Use of specific drugs to reduce proteinuria (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II blockers);
- Avoid nephrotoxic and intravenous contrast products;
- Changes in the diet, through a restriction in the consumption of proteins (meat, fish, milk and dairy products).
- Stop smoking;
- Treatment of high cholesterol values;
- Treatment of metabolic acidosis with oral bicarbonate.
The therapeutic approach for “pre-dialysis” chronic kidney failure (stages 1 to 4) is multiple because it addresses various pathologies and complications, already mentioned. It must be guided by the best nephrologist in Delhi, at least from stages 3 to 5.
Acute renal failure is an entity that can be diagnosed as outpatients, but in almost all relevant situations patients are admitted to the hospital. The medication performed in these cases is, in many cases, identical to that of CRF.
The acute renal failure treatment in Delhi and chronic renal failure stage 5 may involve renal replacement therapy, dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis).
In the context of acute renal failure with dialysis, the most common therapy is hemodialysis. In an intensive care environment, it may be necessary to use other forms of dialysis, such as hemofiltration.
The renal transplantation is considered, however, the treatment of chronic renal failure best five-stage suggests kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.
Transplantation in renal failure
The renal transplantation involves an operation (operation) for placing a carcass or kidney from a donor. This space is considered the “divine” space for this procedure, as it allows vascularization and urinary drainage of the transplant with adequate proximity to the recipient’s iliac vessels and bladder, explains nephrologist in Gurgaon.
This procedure necessarily implies the patient’s informed consent.
Kidney transplant in Delhi has several advantages, which translate fundamentally into better quality and quantity of life compared to dialysis, for recipients under the age of 70 years. However, it involves the chronic use of immunosuppressants, which is why it is associated with some complications such as the increased risk of infections and neoplasms, explains doctor for kidney transplant in Delhi.
Diet for kidney failure
The nutrition in chronic kidney disease follows general guidelines, but should ultimately be individualized.
In cases of acute or chronic renal failure with elevated serum potassium (risk of cardiac toxicity), the diet includes restrictions on foods rich in this element such as beans and fruits. The soup must be boiled in two drinks of water. The other therapies that remove potassium from the blood are ion exchange resin and dialysis, suggests doctor for kidney in Delhi.
In an attempt to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease, there are relevant studies that value the dietary restriction of proteins (meat and fish, for example).
There are other metabolic changes that require an individualized diet in kidney diseases, such as hyperphosphatemia and hyperuricemia. Thus, it is not possible to define a “perfect menu” for all renal patients, that is, the diet plan must be individualized and stipulated by the nephrologist in Delhi and nutritionist for each patient.