Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the developed world, says the best nephrologist in Delhi.
The diabetes, characterized disease excess blood glucose can affect various organs of the body including the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) or eyes (diabetic retinopathy). Good diabetes control is able to prevent, delay or decrease the appearance of these and other complications of the disease.
The constant maintenance of high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood causes a disturbance in the wall of the arteries. As a consequence, the blood does not correctly reach the tissues and this leads to a disorder in the structure and function of different organs in the body, explains the nephrologist in Delhi.
The mechanism by which excess glucose affects the arteries is very complex. On the one hand, the wall of the arteries is made up of proteins. Glucose tends to bind to these proteins, and this phenomenon can ultimately deconstruct the arterial wall. On the other hand, the insulin deficiency characteristic of diabetes means that the transformation of glucose for energy is carried out through a specific type of metabolic pathway. As a consequence, the body accumulates a series of substances that can also cause alterations in the walls of the arteries, says the nephrologist in Noida.
The appearance of complications in a diabetic person also depends on their personal susceptibility to changes caused by high glucose levels.
Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the developed world, accounting for approximately 35-40% of new cases of kidney failure each year, says the nephrologist in Gurgaon. It should be known that:
– The development of early stages of diabetic nephropathy is frequent
Throughout life, around 50% of people with type 1 diabetes develop microalbuminuria – presence of the albumin protein in the urine, which is an indicator of impaired kidney function.
– Approximately 20% of people with type 1 diabetes develop kidney failure.
In Caucasian people with type 2 diabetes, between 5 and 10% go on to develop end-stage chronic kidney failure (CRFD), while among non-Caucasians the proportion is even higher.
Diabetic kidney failure is the most common cause of admission to kidney replacement programs, dialysis or transplantation, in most countries of the world, says the kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.
In India, around a third of people with end-stage chronic kidney disease have diabetes. This population is estimated to grow at an annual rate of 8%.
– Up to 40% of new cases of IRCT can be attributed to diabetes.
The risk of CKD is 12 times higher in people with type 1 diabetes compared to those with type 2 diabetes, says the kidney specialist in Delhi.
–There are two treatment options when the kidneys fail.
Dialysis – peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis – and kidney transplant. The costs of both treatments are high. Diabetes is estimated to represent between 5 and 10% of the national health budget in western developed countries.
– Diabetic kidney failure develops so slowly that it may not give symptoms for many years.
The best way to detect the problem is to test your urine for proteins, which should not normally be present, such as albumin. The Kidney Specialist in Noida recommends that every person with diabetes undergo a urine test for albuminuria each year.
– Close control of the blood glucose level reduces the risk of microalbuminuria, and therefore of future chronic terminal renal failure, by up to 35%.
There is conclusive evidence that good blood glucose levels can significantly reduce the risk of developing complications and slowing their progression in all types of diabetes.
Control of high blood pressure and high levels of fats in the blood (hyperlipidemia) is also very important, says the nephrologist in Delhi.