The kidneys perform very important functions in the body related to the excretion of waste products, excess fluid, medications and toxins, maintain the balance of water and chemical elements, secrete important hormones necessary for regulating blood pressure and the production of red blood cells, and contribute to maintaining healthy bones. In chronic insufficiency, the kidneys gradually lose their ability to perform their functions, which leads to impaired functioning of all organs and systems, explains nephrologist in Delhi.
The term “chronic kidney disease” combines many different diseases of the urinary system associated with a sharp deterioration in the quality of life, high mortality and leading in the terminal stage to the need for expensive replacement therapy methods – dialysis and kidney transplant in Delhi.
In India today, about 2 million people suffer from chronic kidney disease. The average age of patients receiving renal replacement therapy (dialysis) is 45-50 years, that is, a young, able-bodied part of the population suffers to a large extent.
What are the symptoms of chronic kidney failure?
Most people in the early stages do not have severe symptoms. The following complaints indicating a violation of their function allow to suspect a disease of the kidneys and urinary tract:
- swelling of the feet, legs, face (especially in the morning);
- pain and discomfort in the lumbar region;
- change in the type of urine (red, brown, cloudy, foamy, containing “flakes” and sediment);
- frequent urges to urinate, imperative urges (it is difficult to endure the urge, you must immediately run to the toilet), difficulty urinating;
- a decrease in the daily amount of urine (less than 500 ml);
- frequent and profuse urination (polyuria), regular urination at night;
- constant feeling of thirst;
- poor appetite, aversion to meat food;
- general weakness, malaise;
- shortness of breath, decreased load tolerance;
- increased blood pressure, often accompanied by headaches, dizziness;
- pain behind the sternum, palpitations, or heart failure;
- itchy skin.
However, all these symptoms are nonspecific. A particular danger of chronic kidney disease is that it may not cause any complaints for a long time that would prompt a person to seek medical help from the best nephrologist in Delhi.
What causes chronic renal failure?
The main causes of the disease are diabetes and high blood pressure.
Diabetes mellitus causes damage to the kidneys, heart, blood vessels and nerve endings. High blood pressure without proper control can lead to heart attack, stroke, and chronic renal failure. In turn, chronic renal failure itself can cause high blood pressure.
Other diseases that affect kidney function:
- Glomerulonephritis is a disease that causes inflammation and damage to the filtering elements of the kidneys.
- Hereditary diseases such as polycystic kidney disease. It leads to the appearance of large cysts in the kidneys that damage the kidney tissue.
- Violations that occur during the development of the fetus in the womb. For example, narrowing that interferes with the normal excretion of urine and leads to its return to the kidney, which subsequently contributes to infection and damage to the kidneys.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases.
- Blockages caused by kidney stones, tumors, or enlarged prostate in men.
- Multiple urinary tract infections.
- Obesity or metabolic syndrome, impaired lipid metabolism.
Unmodifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (which cannot be influenced by treatment or lifestyle changes):
- Elderly age
- Male gender
- Low birth weight
- Racial and Ethnic Features
- Hereditary factors
A very important risk factor for kidney damage is the abuse of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, “addiction” to food additives (means for weight loss in women, protein shakes for building muscle mass in men).
What is the danger of chronic kidney disease?
Even at the stage of a moderate decrease in renal function, the risk of cardiovascular complications increases sharply, which increases the likelihood of a fatal outcome due to heart attack and stroke, and also significantly increases the risk of coronary heart disease.
Diagnosis of chronic kidney disease
Diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is based on laboratory tests. First of all, you need to pass the following tests:
- General urine analysis, according to which it is possible to preliminarily judge the presence of an inflammatory process in the organs of the urinary system and loss of kidney function (albuminuria, proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia, low relative density of urine).
- General detailed blood test, in which a reduced concentration of hemoglobin (anemia) can be detected.
- The comprehensive “Renal tests” is recommended by kidney specialist in Delhi for cases of suspected diseases of the urinary system, cardiovascular system, after infections with a risk of complications from the kidneys (flu, sore throat, SARS, etc.).
The research results will allow the best kidney specialist in Delhi to evaluate the functional state of the kidneys and obtain information about the causes of impaired function. In many cases, early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can slow down or stop the development of chronic renal failure.
Is it possible to prevent the disease, even with risk factors?
Simple measures will help reduce the risk of developing kidney disease:
- regular medical examinations;
- treatment of diabetes and / or hypertension;
- weight control due to a healthy diet and regular physical activity;
- refusal of alcohol and tobacco;
- taking medications (especially painkillers) only as directed by a doctor;
- restriction of salt and protein in the diet.